sábado, 15 de outubro de 2011
sábado, 25 de junho de 2011
BRIC Presents High-Growth Opportunities for Folding Cartons
07 June 2011
Folding cartons will see an average annual growth rate of 7.9% in BRIC (Brazil, Russia, India, China) between 2010 and 2016, according to the latest research from Pira International.
According to Pira, overall actual consumption of cartonboard as measured by converter sales will grow by an average of 4.4% annually from 2010 to 2016, with Asia showing the strongest growth at 6.5% over the period. Total actual consumption (conversion net of trade) of cartonboard amounted to 40 million tonnes in 2010, worth $78 billion.
A new study from Pira - The Future of Folding Cartons: Market forecasts to 2016 - shows how global production has increased by an average of almost 2.5% a year since 2005 and totaled over 43 million tonnes in 2010. Asia accounted for 45% of the total volume, followed by America and Europe with a combined total of 52%.
The major end-use markets for folding cartons exhibit their own micro-demographic trends that are affecting demand. In the health care market good growth is anticipated I product lines such as analgesics, sleep therapies, tranquilisers and other calming products, as well as new products such as nicotine replacements, contraceptives, vitamins, diet supplements and nutraceuticals in general, many of which are packed in folding cartons.
Liberalisation of the over-the-counter (OTC) market will see increased sales of products through non-traditional outlets, and technological advances such as interactive packs may provide further stimulation in the long term.
The tobacco industry is facing bans on smoking in public places, bans on advertising, higher age limits, reduced brand imaging and higher taxes, which Pira expects will eventually result in a decline in demand. In the dry food market, modernising of retail systems in developing regions will boost overall product consumption and an increase in demand for higher-quality graphics, coupled with demand for smaller packs, may boost folding carton consumption. Pira also sees further potential for growth from barrier coating technology and the 'bagless box'.
According to the study, rising disposable incomes in developing markets will boost growth in white goods sales. This will in turn increase demand for the household chemicals used in their operation, although the folding carton sector faces a continuous threat from liquid products packed in plastics and ongoing product concentration resulting in ever smaller packs.
In the hardware and electrical sector, 'i-Products' alone have probably accounted for more than 25,000 tonnes of cartonboard since the launch of the first iPod in 2001 and this phenomenon is likely to continue for some time to come. Elsewhere, the car parts and DIY markets, major users of folding cartons, are receiving a huge boost from the economic downturn.
According to Pira, limited retail infrastructure in the developing regions is likely to be the most significant hindrance to higher growth in folding carton demand in both frozen foods and ready meals. Nevertheless, increased use of refrigeration by consumers in developing countries, plus a gradual improvement in infrastructure, is expected to boost folding cartons in both markets, as well as in dairy product packaging. Consumers are increasingly environmentally aware, and demanding products that combine natural ingredients and eco-friendly packaging in the personal care market.
Although consumers are becoming increasingly aware of the need for healthier alternatives to the traditional bakery product line-up, and cartons face stiff competition from flexible packaging in this sector, the 'bagless box' may provide opportunities for development.
At end-user level, demand for folding cartons will show average annual growth of 4.4% during 2010 -- 16. The highest growth sectors in percentage terms will be spirits, health care, confectionery, tobacco, hardware and chilled food. The lowest growth will be in pet food, soft drinks, savoury snacks and baked products, all of which face growing competition from flexible packaging.
domingo, 26 de dezembro de 2010
Infelizmente o famoso Orelhão foi muito abandonado pelas operadoras,mas,com certeza,absoluta,é a forma mais econômica de efetuarmos uma ligação no Brasil.
Os famosos cartões indutivos,lançados em 1992 pelo CPQD com o apoio de empresas tais quais Thomas De Larue,Inteprint,Casa da Moeda,ICATEL e Daruma,com seus incansáveis pesquisadores e colaboradores necessita ser revitalizado....
Cartões especiais com novidades e baixo custo para todos os setores,necessitam ser criados e porque não usar a nanotecnologia?!
domingo, 13 de setembro de 2009
Este processo é uma evolução das tecnologias existentes para metalização de superficies à vácuo ou impressa,da produção de cartões telefônicos indutivos,da aplicação correta de impressão silk-screen rotativa para a fabricação de antenas e circuitos RFid.
O nosso desenvolvimento está sendo efetuado com uma das mais renomadas empresas do segmento de modo a garantir que os futuros clientes possam ter acesso a tecnologia que estará sendo utilizada para garantir a completa rastreabilidade de qualquer produto reduzindo drasticamente a falsificação dos mesmos.
Iremos postando as nossas evoluções.
Obs.A tecnologia pode ser usada na fabricação de antenas,circuitos especiais,cartões com segurança,e principalmente cartões de telefonia.
segunda-feira, 12 de maio de 2008
domingo, 11 de maio de 2008
O sucesso obtido no último ano com os nossos pigmentos especiais,produzidos com uma técnica apurada de natotech-nanotecnologia e que usa material reciclado estará sendo lançado no mercado ainda este mês.
Depois de uma série de tentativas uma única empresa que utilizará os produtos e subprodutos e com total exclusividade.
Entendo que durante os meses seguintes de 2008,o avança da nanotecnologia permitirá que efetuemos o lançamento de :
Produtos especiais são as nossas metas.
Não podemos divulgar os segmentos que trabalhamos,mas com certeza seus documentos,seus aparelhos eletrônicos,seus cartões bancários,por exemplo,usarão nossa tecnologia.
Agradeço ao meu filho pela paciência em me ter ausente na fase de research.
Vamos a Disney se Deus quiser.
Um pouco de tecnologia não mata ninguém Ok.
Sputter deposition is a physical vapor deposition (PVD) method of depositing thin films by sputtering, i.e. ejecting, material from a "target," i.e., source, which then deposits onto a "substrate," e.g., a silicon wafer. Resputtering, is re-emission of the deposited material during the deposition process by ion or atom bombardment.
Sputtered atoms ejected from the target have a wide energy distribution, typically up to 10's of eV's (100000 K). The sputtered ions (typically only a small fraction -- order 1% -- of the ejected particles is ionized) can ballistically fly from the target in straight lines and impact energetically on the substrates or vacuum chamber (causing resputtering) or, at higher gas pressures, collide with the gas atoms that act as a moderator and move diffusively, reaching the substrates or vacuum chamber wall and condensing after undergoing a random walk. The entire range from high-energy ballistic impact to low-energy thermalized motion is accessible by changing the background gas pressure. The sputtering gas is often an inert gas such as argon. For efficient momentum transfer, the atomic weight of the sputtering gas should be close to the atomic weight of the target, so for sputtering light elements neon is preferable, while for heavy elements krypton or xenon are used. Reactive gases can also be used to sputter compunds. The compound can be formed on the target surface, in-flight or on the substrate depending on the process parameters. The availability of many parameters that control sputter deposition make it a complex process, but also allow experts a large degree of control over the growth and microstructure of the film.
2 Comparison with other deposition methods
3 Types of sputter deposition
3.1 Ion-beam sputtering
3.2 Reactive sputtering
3.3 Ion-assisted deposition
3.4 High-target-utilization sputtering
3.5 High Power Impulse Magnetron Sputtering (HIPIMS)
5 External links
Sputtering is used extensively in the semiconductor industry to deposit thin films of various materials in integrated circuit processing. Thin antireflection coatings on glass for optical applications are also deposited by sputtering. Because of the low substrate temperatures used, sputtering is an ideal method to deposit contact metals for thin-film transistors. Perhaps the most familiar products of sputtering are low-emissivity coatings on glass, used in double-pane window assemblies. The coating is a multilayer containing silver and metal oxides such as zinc oxide, tin oxide, or titanium dioxide. Sputtering is also used to metalize plastics such as potato chip bags. A large industry has developed around tool bit coating using sputtered nitrides e.g. titanium nitride creating the familiar gold colored hard coat. Sputtering is also used as the process to deposit the metal (Aluminum) layer during the fabrication of CD and DVD discs.
Hard disk surfaces use sputtered CrOx and other sputtered materials.
Another way for making efficient photovoltaic solar cells utilize sputtering.
Comparison with other deposition methods
An important advantage of sputter deposition is that even the highest melting point materials are easily sputtered while evaporation of these materials in a resistance evaporator or Knutsen cell is problematic or impossible. Sputter deposited films have a composition close to that of the source material. The difference is due to different elements spreading differently because of their different mass (light elements are deflected easier by the gas) but this difference is constant. Sputtered films typically have a better adhesion on the substrate than evaporated films. A target contains a large amount of material and is maintenance free making the technique suited for ultrahigh vacuum applications. Sputtering sources contain no hot parts (to avoid heating they are typically water cooled) and are compatible with reactive gases such as oxygen. Sputtering can be performed top-down while evaporation must be performed bottom-up. Advanced processes such as epitaxial growth are possible.
Some disadvantages of the sputtering process are that the process is more difficult to combine with a lift-off process for structuring the film. This is because the diffuse transport, characteric of sputtering, makes a full shadow impossible. Thus, one cannot fully restrict where the atoms go, which can lead to contamination problems. Also, active control for layer-by-layer growth is difficult compared to pulsed laser deposition and inert sputtering gases are built into the growing film as impurities.
A typical ring-geometry sputter target, here gold showing the cathode made of the material to be deposited, the anode counter-electrode and an outer ring meant to prevent sputtering of the hearth that holds the target.
Types of sputter deposition
Sputtering sources are usually magnetrons that utilize strong electric and magnetic fields to trap electrons close to the surface of the magnetron, which is known as the target. The electrons follow helical paths around the magnetic field lines undergoing more ionizing collisions with gaseous neutrals near the target surface than would otherwise occur. The sputter gas is inert, typically argon. The extra argon ions created as a result of these collisions leads to a higher deposition rate. It also means that the plasma can be sustained at a lower pressure. The sputtered atoms are neutrally charged and so are unaffected by the magnetic trap. Charge build-up on insulating targets can be avoided with the use of RF sputtering where the sign of the anode-cathode bias is varied at a high rate. RF sputtering works well to produce highly insulating oxide films but only with the added expense of RF power supplies and impedance matching networks. Stray magnetic fields leaking from ferromagnetic targets also disturb the sputtering process. Specially designed sputter guns with unusually strong permanent magnets must often be used in compensation.
A magnetron sputter gun showing the target-mounting surface, the vacuum feedthrough, the power connector and the water lines. This design uses a disc target as opposed to the ring geometry .
Ion-beam sputtering (IBS) is a method in which the target is external to the ion source. A source can work without any magnetic field like in a Hot filament ionization gauge . In a Kaufman source ions are generated by collisions with electrons that are confined by a magnetic field as in a magnetron. They are then accelerated by the electric field emanating from a grid toward a target. As the ions leave the source they are neutralized by electrons from a second external filament. IBS has an advantage in that the energy and flux of ions can be controlled independently. Since the flux that strikes the target is composed of neutral atoms, either insulating or conducting targets can be sputtered. IBS has found application in the manufacture of thin-film heads for disk drives. A pressure gradient between the ion source and the sample chamber is generated by placing the gas inlet at the source and shooting through a tube in into the sample chamber. This saves gas and reduces contamination in UHV applications. The principal drawback of IBS is the large amount of maintenance required to keep the ion source operating.
In reactive sputtering, the deposited film is formed by chemical reaction between the target material and a gas which is introduced into the vacuum chamber. Oxide and nitride films are often fabricated using reactive sputtering. The composition of the film can be controlled by varying the relative pressures of the inert and reactive gases. Film stoichiometry is an important parameter for optimizing functional properties like the stress in SiNx and the index of refraction of SiOx. The transparent indium tin oxide conductor that is used in optoelectronics and solar cells is made by reactive sputtering.
In ion-assisted deposition (IAD), the substrate is exposed to a secondary ion beam operating at a lower power than the sputter gun. Usually a Kaufman source like that used in IBS supplies the secondary beam. IAD can be used to deposit carbon in diamond-like form on a substrate. Any carbon atoms landing on the substrate which fail to bond properly in the diamond crystal lattice will be knocked off by the secondary beam. NASA used this technique to experiment with depositing diamond films on turbine blades in the 1980s. IAS is used in other important industrial applications such as creating tetrahedral amorphous carbon surface coatings on hard disk platters and hard transition metal nitride coatings on medical implants.
Comparison of target utilisation via HiTUS process - 95%
Sputtering may also be performed by remote generation of a high density plasma. The plasma is generated in a side chamber opening into the main process chamber, containing the target and the substrate to be coated. As the plasma is generated remotely, and not from the target itself (as in conventional magnetron sputtering), the ion current to the target is independent of the voltage applied to the target.
High Power Impulse Magnetron Sputtering (HIPIMS)
Main article: High Power Impulse Magnetron Sputtering
HIPIMS is a method for physical vapor deposition of thin films which is based on magnetron sputter deposition. HIPIMS utilises extremely high power densities of the order of kWcm-2 in short pulses (impulses) of tens of microseconds at low duty cycle of <>Aluminum Nitride
Aluminum Nitride (AlN) has generated a lot research interest because of its attractive properties for microelectronic and optoelectronic applications. AIN film produced by BI can be grown by PVD or CVD techniques. CVD can produce highly oriented epitaxial AlN film, but suffers from a slow deposition rate and thermal stress due to substrate heating. Reactive sputtering produces a film of differing quality in term of microcrystalline properties, but has a high deposition rate and allows for processing at low substrate temperatures. BI sputtering systems are capable of growing production-worthy AlN films.